ISSN-1855-6175

Why the Concept of Private Demand for Innovations Should Be Understand: The case of ex-YU countries

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Slagjana Stojanovska (a), Assoc. Prof. Dr. Violeta Madzova (b), Assoc. Prof. Dr. Biljana Gjozinska (a)
DOI 10.32015/JIMB/2018-10-2-6


(a) Integrated Business Faculty, Skopje, Macedonia, (b) International Balkan University, Skopje, Macedonia


ABSTRACT

This paper aims to provide a comparative analysis of private demand for innovation in the context of the ex-YU countries such as Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia and Macedonia from 2011 to 2016. One key variable for the importance of demand for innovation is the buyer sophistication. This signals the ability of buyers to select products and services based on performance rather than price and to bear the cost of products at the beginning of the life cycle. The companies that face a sophisticated domestic market are likely to sell high quality products and a close proximity to such consumers should to enables the company to better understand the needs and desires of the customers and how they perceive the value of the product. For cultural or historical reasons, buyers may be more demanding in some countries than in others. Hence, оur start point is that “higher degrees of buyer sophistication can to explain higher shares of innovative sales” (Hollanders and Es-Sadki, 2017, p. 42) and opposite “lower shares of innovative sales could to explain lower degrees of buyer sophistication” in the above countries. Thus, our analysis relies on two key indicators, the “buyer sophistication” and the “sales of new-to-market and new-to-firm product innovations”, which are including, the first in the Global Competitiveness Report and the second, in the European Innovation Scoreboard. Looking at the results, it can be noted that Serbia has a big gap between the two indicators, so the extent of buyer sophistication is lower from the extent of innovative sales. Аs business leaders make a subjective assessment of the GCR’s indicator Buyer sophistication, it can be assumed that Serbian business leaders assess the sophistication of domestic customers much lower than it is. This example is somewhat similar to the Slovenian business leaders. These two countries achieve the same level of sales of innovative products, while Macedonia and Croatia are in the same group and have lower sales of innovative products. This finding calls for demand-oriented policies which would have to influence the innovation culture in the market, making buyers more risk taking, aware of innovations and empower them to buy and use them.

KEY WORDS: private demand, buyer sophistication, innovations, value, sales

POVZETEK

Namen tega prispevka je zagotoviti primerjalno analizo zasebnega povpraševanja po inovacijah v kontekstu bivših jugoslovanskih držav, kot so Slovenija, Hrvaška, Srbija in Makedonija od leta 2011 do leta 2016. Ključna spremenljivka za pomembnost povpraševanja po inovacijah je prefinjenost kupca. Signalizira zmožnost kupcev, da izberejo izdelke in storitve, ki temeljijo na uspešnosti, ne pa na ceni, in nosijo stroške izdelkov na začetku življenjskega cikla. Podjetja, ki se soočajo s prefinjenim domačim trgom, verjetno prodajajo izdelke visoke kakovosti in bi morala biti v neposredni bližini takim potrošnikom, da bi podjetju omogočili boljše razumevanje potreb in želja kupcev ter zaznavanje vrednost izdelka. Iz kulturnih ali zgodovinskih razlogov so lahko kupci v nekaterih državah bolj zahtevni kot v drugih. Zato izhajamo iz ugotovitve, da "višja stopnja prefinjenosti kupcev lahko razloži višje deleže inovativne prodaje" (Hollanders in Es-Sadki, 2017, str. 42) in nasprotno, "nižji deleži inovativne prodaje lahko razložijo nižje stopnje kupca prefinjenosti" v navedenih državah. Tako se naša analiza opira na dva ključna kazalnika: »prefinjenost kupcev« in »prodaja podjetij, ki so nova na trgu in prodaja novih produktnih inovacij«, ki sta vključena v poročilu o svetovni konkurenčnosti (prvi) in v evropskem pregledu inovacij (drugi kazalnik). Rezultati kažejo, da ima Srbija velik razkorak med obema kazalnikoma, zato je obseg prefinjenosti kupcev nižji od obsega inovativne prodaje. Ker poslovodjenaredijo subjektivno oceno kazalnika GCR-ja kupca, se lahko domneva, da srbski poslovneži ocenijo prefinjenost domačih kupcev precej nižje, kot ta dejansko je. Primer je nekoliko podoben pri slovenskih poslovnežih. Ti dve državi dosegata enako raven prodaje inovativnih izdelkov, medtem ko sta Makedonija in Hrvaška v isti skupini in imata nižjo prodajo inovativnih izdelkov. Ta ugotovitev zahteva razvoj politik, usmerjenih v povpraševanje, ki bi morale vplivati na inovacijsko kulturo na trgu, tako da bodo kupci prevzeli večje tveganje, se zavedali inovacij in jih pooblastili za nakup in uporabo.

KLJUČNE BESEDE: zasebno povpraševanje, prefinjenost kupcev, inovacije, vrednost, prodaja


Nazaj