Hofstede’s Culture Values Survey in Albania: How the cultural scores have shifted over time?

  • Irma Gjana Epoka University, Department of Business Administration, Rr. Tiranë-Rinas, Km. 12, 1039, Tirane, Albania
Keywords: Hofstede, Albania, private hospitals, culture dimensions, shifting of scores


The purpose of this paper is to highlight the changes that Albanian cultural dimensions’ scores have undergone over time. Hofstede’s Value Survey Module 2013 (VSM, 2013) has been applied to examine the six dimensions of culture; power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, long term orientation and indulgence. The survey data (N = 387) was collected in the two largest private hospitals in Albania. Globalization, technological developments, economical flourishing and crisis, war and peace, influence the shifting of national cultural dimensions’ scores toward negative or positive values (Hofstede et al. 2010). In this study we aim to show the shifting of Albanian culture value scores in time, and compare the results with the ones predicted by the researchers of the field. The results obtained show a negative shift on Albanian culture dimension score of power distance, individualism, long term orientation and indulgence, and a positive shift on masculinity and uncertainty avoidance values. Implications for researchers of the field are discussed in the paper.


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How to Cite
Gjana, I. (2020) “Hofstede’s Culture Values Survey in Albania: How the cultural scores have shifted over time?”, Mednarodno inovativno poslovanje = Journal of Innovative Business and Management, 12(1), pp. 49-60. doi: 10.32015/JIBM/2020-12-1-7.
Original article